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America’s Black Holocaust Museum

[1] Katherine Hicks, “Black Holocaust Museum Designed to ‘Prick the Conscience,’” The Milwaukee Sentinel, June 13, 1988.

[2] Hicks, “Black Holocaust Museum Designed to “Prick the Conscience.”

[3] Mary Cole McCauley, “Exhibit Gives Kids a Look at Ex-Slave Settlement,” The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, October 16, 1998.

[4] James E. Causey, “Museum Could

American Indian Movement

[1] Susan Applegate Krouse, “What Came Out of the Takeovers: Women’s Activism and the Indian Community School of Milwaukee.” American Indian Quarterly vol. 27, no. 3/4 (Summer-Autumn 2003): 535; Judson L. Jeffrie, Omari L. Dyson, and Charles E. Jones, “Militancy Transcends Race: A Comparative Analysis of the American Indian Movement, the Black Panther Party, and the

American Motors

[1] John Gurda, Built by Seaman: Four Generations of Family Enterprise ([Milwaukee]: Douglas Seaman Family, 2001), 27-28; David I. Bednarek, “Chrysler Fund Keeps Workers at Full Pay, But It May Not Last,” Milwaukee Journal, April 3, 1988.

[2] Gurda, Built by Seaman, 36.

[3] Frederick I. Olson, “Seaman Body Corporation,” in <

American Society for Quality

[1] ASQ Fact Sheet, American Society for Quality website accessed June 2, 2016; “About ASQ: The ASQ Timeline,” American Society for Quality website, accessed June 2, 2016.

[2] ASQ Fact Sheet.

[3] ASQ Fact Sheet; “Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award (MBNQA),” American Society for Quality website, accessed June 7, 2016.

[4] Charles H. Wing, “Message from the President,” <

Amusement Parks

[1] John Gurda, “National Park: Where Milwaukee Went for Thrills 100 Years Ago,” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, August 9, 2014.

[2] Milwaukee Sentinel, June 11, 1885, 3; Harry H. Anderson, “Recreation, Entertainment, and Open Space: Park Traditions in Milwaukee County,” in Trading Post to Metropolis: Milwaukee County’s First 150 Years, ed. Ralph M. Aderman (Milwaukee:


[1] “Anarchism,” Merriam-Webster Dictionary, accessed July 20, 2016; see also Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2013), xiv.

[2] Michael A. Gordon, “‘To Make a Clean Sweep’: Milwaukee Confronts an Anarchist Scare in 1917,” Wisconsin Magazine

Animal-Human Relations

[1] Charter and Ordinances of the City of Milwaukee, with the Constitution of the State, and Acts of the Legislature Relating to the City (Milwaukee: Daily News Book, 1857), 66-67, 418-421.

[2] Paul E. Geib, “‘Everything But the Squeal’: The Milwaukee Stockyards and Meat-Packing Industry, 1840-1930,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 78, no. 1 (


[1] Entry originally posted April 3, 2019; entry revised December 22, 2020. Arnold Fleischmann, “The Politics of Annexation and Urban Development: A Clash of Two Paradigms” (Ph.D. diss., University of Texas at Austin, 1984), 88-92.

[2] Kate Foss-Mollan, Hard Water: Politics and Water Supply in Milwaukee, 1870-1995 (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2001), 63-66.


Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church

[1] John Gurda, New World Odyssey: Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church and Frank Lloyd Wright (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Hellenic Community, 1986), 8-12.

[2] Gurda, New World Odyssey, 8-12.

[3] Gurda, New World Odyssey, 25.

[4] Wright in Wisconsin: A Service of Frank Lloyd Wright Wisconsin, “Annunciation Church, Wauwatosa,” accessed August 16, 2016

Arab World Fest

[1] “Milwaukee Syrians Hold Folk Festival,” Milwaukee Journal, March 10, 1936; “Helped Entertain at Lakefront” Milwaukee Journal, July, 22, 1936; ; Enaya Othman, “Building a Community among Early Arab Immigrants in Milwaukee, 1890s-1960s,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 96 (Summer 2013): 38-49.

[2] Annysa Johnson, “Milwaukee’s Arab World Festival Returns to Lakefront in 2014,”


[1] Alexander Carl Guth, “Early Day Architects in Milwaukee,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 10, no. 1 (September 1926): 17-28.

[2] Built in Milwaukee: An Architectural View of the City: Prepared for the City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin by Landscape Research ([Milwaukee]: City of Milwaukee, Dept. of City Development, 1983), 139.

[3] Richard W. E. Perrin, <


[1] Robert Mirak, Torn Between Two Lands: Armenians in America, 1890 to World War I (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), 240.

[2] Henry Morgenthau III, Ambassador Morganthau’s Story (New York, NY: Doubleday, 1918), 11. A most recent examination of the genocide from the Turkish perspective is Tanner Akcam, From Empire to Republic:

Ascension Columbia St. Mary’s Hospital

[1] Some authors label the hospital’s status in its early days as public and others private. St. Mary’s was privately funded but open to the public.

[2] Earl. R. Thayer, Seeking to Serve: The History of the Medical Society of Milwaukee County, 1846-1996 (Wauwatosa, WI: Vilar Arts, Inc., 1996), 120; Brenda W.

Asian Indians

[1] John Radzilowski, “Late-Twentieth-Century Immigration,” The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia, eds. Richard Sisson, Christina Zacher, and Andrew R.L. Cayton (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007), 250.

[2] Kazimierz J. Zaniewski and Carol J. Rosen, The Atlas of Ethnic Diversity in Wisconsin (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998), 12; Joseph A. Rodriguez

Asian Moon Festival

[1] Joseph A. Rodriguez, Bootstrap New Urbanism: Design, Race, and Redevelopment in Milwaukee (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014), 90-97; “Asian Americans Plan Fall Festival,” The Milwaukee Journal, June 10, 1994, accessed February 10, 2015, Organizers planned the original festival to coincide with


[1] See Steven Ruggles, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 6.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2015, tabulation of ancestry and mother’s birthplace for metropolitan Milwaukee.

[2] Lisbeth Lindebord, “Regional Deep Structures in the German Cultural Space,” in Regions of Central Europe: The Legacy

Auto Racing

[1] “History of the Milwaukee Mile,” Save the Mile, accessed February 24, 2016.

[2] “Hales Corners Speedway to Close at the End of 2003,” STL Racing, accessed February 24, 2016.

[3] Al Krause, “Tony Willman,” National Sprint Car Hall of Fame and Museum Inductees, National Sprint Car Hall of Fame and Museum website, accessed February 26, 2016.

[4] Gordon


[1] Robert H. Stockman, The Bahá’í Faith in America, vol. 1, Origins, 1892-1900 (Wilmette, IL: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1985), 30.

[2] Stockman, Origins, 1892-1900, 110-112.

[3] Robert H. Stockman, “Love’s Odyssey: The Life of Thornton Chase” (unpublished manuscript of Thornton Chase: The First American Bahá’í), chapter 12, accessed

Banking Industry

[1] Entry originally posted October 4, 2017; entry revised August 6, 2021. Bayrd Still, Milwaukee, The History of a City (Madison, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1948), 27-29; John G. Gregory, History of Milwaukee (Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1931), 1: 389; James A. Watrous, ed., Memoirs of Milwaukee County (Madison: Western Historical Association, 1909), 1: 560.

[2] Alice E.


[1] Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies, “Metro-Area Membership Report: Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI, Metropolitan Statistical Area” (Association of Religion Data Archives, 2010), accessed April 24, 2017.

[2] Frank Abial Flower, History of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from Pre-Historic Times to the Present Date (Chicago, IL: Western Historical Company, 1881), Archives Unbound, accessed February 2, 2017, 838; Mabel Florence Greeson,